Canadian Packaging

Temperature, time testing proves corrugation process destroys bacteria

By Canadian Packaging staff   

Sustainability Corrugated Corrugated Packaging Alliance CPA EPA Haley & Aldrich NSF International U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Research from U.S.-based Corrugated Packaging Alliance verifies cleanliness of single-use corrugated packaging.

BRAMPTON, ON—A new study shows the process of combining linerboard and medium to make corrugated packaging is sufficient to destroy common food pathogens, effectively meeting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) requirements for chemical sanitizers.

The laboratory study, conducted by NSF International under the direction of Maryann Sanders, senior regulatory specialist and microbiologist at Haley & Aldrich, Inc. and sponsored by the Corrugated Packaging Alliance (CPA), evaluated both temperature and time to determine if typical corrugated manufacturing processes, which combine a fluted or arched layer of paper sandwiched between two smooth layers, were sufficient for sanitization.

The study employed a temperature and time profile representative of manufacturing practices where linerboard reaches temperatures of 180 – 200 degrees Fahrenheit for approximately nine seconds.

That profile was attained in the laboratory by placing corrugated material between two one-inch thick, pre-heated aluminum plates for the specified time. Under these conditions, linerboard contaminated with a cocktail of various thermotolerant organisms, including both E. coli and Salmonella spp., reached the specified temperature for the identified time resulting in a five-log reduction in the number of organisms present on the liner surface, effectively meeting the EPA’s defined requirement for sanitization.


“This research confirms what we have known for decades,” says CPA executive director Dennis Colley. “The corrugation process has sufficient temperatures and dwell time to kill microbes.  Clean boxes have been consistently verified at box plants and at customer locations.”

This study is the latest in a line of both field and laboratory-based research studies performed over the past several years demonstrating the cleanliness of single-use corrugated packaging.

A study conducted from 2010 – 2014 showed that over 400 microbiological test results collected from 40 paper and box facilities all met acceptable standards for clean packaging.

Another study released in February 2015 revealed that 100 percent of corrugated boxes from six different box suppliers tested at six different customer locations in three different U.S. regions met standards for clean packaging.

For more information about the cleanliness of corrugated packaging, visit

The Corrugated Packaging Alliance (CPA) is a corrugated industry initiative, jointly sponsored by the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA), the Independent Packaging Association (AICC), the Fibre Box Association (FBA) and the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). Its mission is to foster growth and profitability of corrugated in applications where it can be demonstrated, based on credible and persuasive evidence, that corrugated should be the packaging material of choice; and to provide a coordinated industry focus that effectively acts on industry matters that cannot be accomplished by individual members. CPA members include corrugated manufacturers and converters throughout North America.

The Canadian Corrugated and Containerboard Association (CCCA) leads by advancing the competitiveness of the Canadian corrugated and containerboard industry; by embracing sustainability in all its forms (environmentally responsible, economically viable, socially desirable); by protecting the health and safety of its stakeholders; and to communicate this to customers, governments and the public at large. CCCA members include containerboard mill members, corrugated converter members, associate members and affiliated associations.


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